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Abstract: If an FFAG can be made isochronous, acceleration can occur without ramping the rf frequency. But this is of course simply a cyclotron, of which many examples exist worldwide: 2 of the largest are PSI (580 MeV p, up to 1 MW beam power), TRIUMF (500 MeV H^{}, up to 0.1 MW beam power). How do the beam dynamics change if an FFAG is isochronous? E.g. can we still achieve large acceptance?
Isochronism
Let us define q to be the angle of the reference particle momentum w.r.t. the lab frame. Orbit length L is given by speed and orbit period T:




B
=
B_{c}
Ö
1(R/R_{¥})^{2}
.
So isochronism Þ nonscaling.
Focusing (flat field)
For the moment, let us imagine that there are no sectors, no azimuthal field variation, just radial variation with field index k=b^{2}g^{2}.
We know the transfer matrix in such a dipole, and can write directly:
n_{r}^{2}
=
1+k
n_{z}^{2}
=
k
=
1+b^{2}g^{2}
=
b^{2}g^{2}
=
g^{2}
<
0
n_{r}
=
g
n_{z}
=
imaginary
So why do such cyclotrons work at all? Lawrence's first cyclotrons, and those built before the early 50s, had no sector focusing. To obtain vertical focusing, k was made slightly negative. This resulted in phase slippage, so the rf voltage was made as large as possible to achieve the final energy before an accumulated phase slip of p/2. In addition, some vertical focusing was achieved by accelerating on the falling side of the rf voltage. In this way, such cyclotrons achieved maximum energies of 20 to 30 MeV (protons).
To reach higher energy, it was necessary to release isochronism, ramp the rf frequency, and pulse the machine. Unfortunately, this meant that the maximum intensity was 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than for the (cw) cyclotron.
Focusing (AVF or FFAG, regular lattice)
Strong focusing was invented/developed in the 50s. This had implications for
For AzimuthallyVarying Field (AVF) or the special case of Alternating Gradient (FFAG), let us use Mathematica to calculate the tunes. To make it transparent, let us consider all identical dipoles and drifts; no reverse bends. We have drifts d, dipoles with index k, radius r, bend angle f, and edge angles fq:
In addition, imagine that the edges are inclined by an extra angle x. This is called the ``spiral angle'' (hard to draw).
In this hardedged case, the ``flutter'' F^{2} º á(B[`B])^{2}ñ/[`B]^{2}=R/r1.
Aside: Notice that the particle trajectory (blue curve) does not coincide with a contour of constant B (dashed curves). This has large implications for using existing transport codes to describe FFAGs.
These expressions are identical to those originally derived by Symon et al. in the original 1956 Phys. Rev. paper about FFAGs.
But beware! Since there is now a distinction between local curvature (r) and global (R), the definition of field index is ambiguous. The local index, used in the dipole transfer matrix, is




Aside: We could have Mathematica print out the next higher order, but it would be in error because the trajectories are not circular arcs.
Example: TRIUMF cyclotron
Energy  R  bg  x  1+2tan^{2}x  F^{2}  n_{z} 
100 MeV  175 in.  0.47  0^{°}  0.0  0.30  0.28 
250 MeV  251 in.  0.78  47^{°}  3.3  0.20  0.24 
505 MeV  311 in.  1.17  72^{°}  20.0  0.07  0.24 
Irregular FFAG cyclotrons
By adjusting the flutter F and spiral angle x as functions of R, we can arrange to make n_{z} constant.
But what about n_{r}? Can we change it by departing from the regular Ncell lattice? Perhaps, but no one has ever tried it.
In synchrotron language, isochronism means g = g_{t}. But we know that for a ``regular'' lattice, g_{t}=n_{r}. Hence, n_{r}=g. For an irregular lattice,

If the lattice is arranged to have a superperiodicity n=±S where S ~ n_{r}, g_{t} can be moved away from n_{r}:

Conclusions:
The chief virtue that FFAG scaling machines have over nonscaling isochronous machines is the constancy of the tunes. This results in huge acceptance ( > 1000p mmmrad). But because they cannot be isochronous, they must be pulsed.
The chief virtue of isochronous FFAGs is that they can run cw and reach very high intensity. However, because n_{r}=g, many resonances must be traversed to reach high energy. This reduces acceptance to only a few p mmmrad.